UPDATE: Isadora Duncan in Paris in 1912

Isadora Duncan Theatre Chatelet Program 1911As I noted in my previous post about Rönnebeck’s Isadora Duncan drawings, I had not yet corroborated my working theory on how he came to create several watercolors and many sketches of Isadora Duncan in Paris in 1912.    My theory was based both on family lore and other reading I had done on the subject.  I had thought that while Bourdelle was sketching Isadora for the Théâtre des Champs des Elysées relief panels in 1911 and 1912, his students, including Arnold Rönnebeck, simply sketched alongside him.  Seemed logical.  I couldn’t have been more wrong.

In November 2019 I had the great pleasure of spending half a day in the archives at the Musée Bourdelle in Paris.  There, I read several of Rönnebeck’s letters to Bourdelle, written between May 1920 and June 1923.  No answers were found in the letters.  Thankfully, however, I had the opportunity to speak with the museum’s archivist and the curator of drawings and paintings.  They were both so kind and generous with their time and shared fascinating information with me.   I mentioned my theory.  They put an end to that idea very quickly.  They told me that Isadora NEVER sat (or danced, in her case) for artists.  Photographers, yes.  Artists, no.  Not even for Bourdelle who had executed innumerable sculptures and drawings of her throughout their friendship of 24 years.   Bourdelle first saw Isadora dance in 1909 at the Théâtre de la Gaité-Lyrique.  He was so inspired by what he saw that the following day he executed 150 drawings of her.

The Musée Bourdelle archivist and curator told me that Bourdelle made all his drawings and sculpture of her from memory after her performances.  They said it was likely that Rönnebeck did the same.  In November and December of 1911, Isadora performed at the Théâtre du Chatelet on the right bank in Paris.  I am guessing that Rönnebeck attended one, if not more, of her performances at that time.  Perhaps, like his teacher, Bourdelle, he made the sketches in 1911 immediately following the performance.  The watercolors were completed in 1912.  Unfortunately I have yet to find any references to Isadora in Rönnebeck’s 1911 journal, so again, I am speculating.  I would imagine it would be difficult, if not impossible, to draw and capture her pioneering style without the benefit of seeing her on stage.  Since her life was tragically cut short, I am thankful that we have so many artists’ representations of her pioneering style.

If one ever has the opportunity to visit the Musée Bourdelle in Paris, I highly recommend it.

Vivace: Isadora Duncan in Paris

Movement.  Paris was all about movement between 1911 and 1913.  Well, at least it seemed to be in the Parisian art world.  Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase debuted at the March 1912 Salon des Indépendants, the Italian futurists had a landmark exhibition at the Bernheim-Jeune gallery in February 1912, Ballets Russes dance performances were causing riots, and Isadora Duncan’s innovative dance performances were inspiring artists in Paris and around the world.

During this period, Rönnebeck was living on rue Saint Gothard in the Montparnasse neighborhood of Paris while studying sculpture with Émile-Antoine Bourdelle at Académie de la Grande Chaumière.  He attended all the local exhibitions, including the Salon d’Autumne, Salon des Indépendants and the futurist show, writing about them in his journal.  It was also during 1912 that Rönnebeck developed his friendships with Marsden Hartley, Gertrude Stein and Charles Demuth, but that is a whole other story that has been well-documented elsewhere.

In late 1911, Bourdelle took on the task of creating the exterior decoration for a modern and monumental project being built on Avenue Montaigne in Paris:  Le Theatre des Champs-Elysées.  The theme of his relief panels was The Meditation of Apollo and the Nine Muses.  All of the muses were inspired by the dance and movement of Isadora Duncan.  Bourdelle first met Isadora in 1903 at a picnic celebrating Rodin’s investiture as a Commander of the Legion of Honor, but he didn’t see her dance until 1909.  In order to create the marble relief sculptures for the theatre, Bourdelle made dozens, maybe even hundreds, of sketches of Isadora dancing.  In the theatre panel entitled “La Danse”, Isadora is paired with the Ballets Russes dancer and choreographer, Vaslav Nijinsky, whose choreography of the Ballets Russes’s Rites of Spring caused riots after their performance at the Theatre des Champs-Elysées in their inaugural 1913 season.

It was also during 1912 that Rönnebeck sketched, drew and painted Isadora.  My (as yet uncorroborated) theory is that Bourdelle’s students sketched Isadora right alongside him.  I am still trying to find out more about this.   I am not aware of Rönnebeck turning any of his sketches of her into sculpture.   He did, however, turn six drawings of Isadora’s movements into completed ink and watercolor paintings on paper, as shown above.  Each is titled using musical terms:  Caprizioso, Vivace, Andante, Allegretto, Furioso and Finale.  Before completing those watercolors, Rönnebeck, too, made dozens of sketches of Isadora in a variety of dance movements, a small selection of those are shown above, as well.

I think only a few seconds of film exist of Isadora Duncan dancing.  Thankfully painters and sculptors, such as Rönnebeck and Bourdelle, have documented her dance, rising to the challenge of translating her dynamic motion into line, paint, ink and marble.

Shangri-La: The Spirit of Hospitality Welcomes the Stranger

In Denver, Colorado, modern architecture, contemporary literature and a Hollywood movie converged in one grand and ambitious project.  Modern sculpture was almost included to the mix.  In 1938, Harry Huffman, a Denver movie theatre owner, completed construction on a mansion in Denver.  It was not your traditional mansion of the American West.  Its inspiration came from a little farther east.  Okay, a lot farther east – – Tibet.  Well, sort of.  Its inspiration came from Hollywood’s version of Tibet, as depicted in the 1937 film, Lost Horizon.  The home, designed by architect Raymond Harry Ervin, is grand and elegant in the streamline modern style.  Huffman and Ervin created a bit of Shangri-La in the Denver hills, with more than a little inspiration from Hollywood.

The film Lost Horizon was directed by Frank Capra and starred Ronald Colman, Jane Wyatt, Edward Everett Horton, H.B. Warner and Sam Jaffe.   The sets were designed by art director, Stephen Goossen, who was a trained architect before he became an art director.  He won an Oscar for his design work on the film.  Huffman was no stranger to looking abroad for building inspiration.  One of his Denver theatres, the Aladdin (demolished in the 1980s), was modeled after the Taj Mahal.

Arnold Rönnebeck met with Mr. Huffman in August or September of 1938 and subsequently produced several sketches of proposed sculptures for the grounds of Denver’s Shangri-La.  As far as I am aware, none of the pieces were executed.   In the archives I have found only one page of a September 13, 1938 letter from Rönnebeck to Harry Huffman discussing this potential project and it sheds little light the subject.  In it, Rönnebeck writes that he wants to “help round out the spirit expressed in Shangri-La and its mysterious background, ‘Lost Horizon’.  You encouraged me to put such ideas on paper, in the form of sketches.  This I have done.”

The first drawing shows the front of the home, with the proposed sculpture, Spirit of Hospitality, positioned near the entrance.  In the 1933 novel, while recounting to Robert Conway the story of how Father Perrault arrived at Shangri-La, the High Lama says,  “There, to his joy and surprise, he found a friendly and prosperous population who made haste to display what I have always regarded as our oldest tradition – – that of hospitality to strangers”.   In the second panel, on the left we have a detail sketch of the Spirit of Hospitality.  In this sculpture, the hands are significant.   The Buddha’s right hand is in the “Karana mudra” position.  This powerful gesture expels negative energy.  Perfect for the entry of a home.

On the right, The High Lama.   The High Lama is the closest connection to the film with its depiction of Sam Jaffe, the actor who played the High Lama in the film.  This sculpture was to be on the reverse of the Birth of Buddha fountain, seen in third drawing.  The fourth sketch depicts a seated Buddha sculpture by of a pond and waterfall.  In this Buddha, the hand positions symbolize the earth as the witness to his enlightenment.

Rönnebeck’s oil painting, White Lotus of Lhasa, c1941, would seem to be inspired by either or both of the novel and film as well.  The painting shows the Buddhist hand gesture signifying the expulsion of negative energy, the same one he depicted in the Spirit of Hospitality sketch.  The lotus flower symbolizes enlightenment, purity, devotion or rebirth.

Given the state of the world in the 1930s and 1940s, everyone was looking for their own Shangri-La, be it in Tibet, Hollywood, Denver, or even Maryland.   In 1938, the WPA completed construction on a presidential retreat in Maryland.  In 1942, President Roosevelt named the retreat Shangri-La.  In 1953, President Eisenhower renamed it Camp David.  I prefer Shangri-La.  Throughout his life, Rönnebeck was on a spiritual quest.  This quest influenced his work in different ways over the years.  Perhaps his participation in this project was, in a small part, a continuation of that quest.

Where are the Longmont, Colorado Post Office Relief Panels?

Welcome to the Estate of Arnold Rönnebeck blog.  It isn’t really a blog per se, simply a place where we will post periodically with historic information related to the work and life of Arnold Rönnebeck.  We hope to add context to his work, or perhaps, just tell some interesting stories.  Sometimes a photo caption just isn’t enough.

Let’s get started.

One day, we hope to create a page entitled “Lost and Found”.  However, for the moment, we’re going to have to settle for “Lost”.

Below are photos of Arnold Rönnebeck’s Ways of the Mail, created for the Treasury Section of Fine Arts in 1936-1937.  All three relief panels for the Longmont, Colorado Post Office are currently missing.  Do you know where they are?

The August 15, 1936 contract states that one section is 2’5″ wide x 2’6″ high and two sections are 2’6″wide  x 2′ high consisting of three (3) panels totaling approximately 7’7″.

Miraculously, the building at 501 5th Avenue, Longmont, Colorado, is still there and was designated a historical landmark 1988. It is assumed, but not known for sure, that when the USPS moved out of the building in 1977 the relief panels were put in storage and subsequently lost. They could be gathering dust in a basement or a storage facility.  One or all of them could have been dropped or damaged in the moving process.  Nobody knows.

While Louise Ronnebeck was extremely active participating in at least sixteen mural competitions, as far as we know, Longmont is the only competition in which Arnold participated.  Per a letter dated October 26, 1937, Rönnebeck stated: The three parts of the panel represent symbolically the ‘Ways of the Mail’ in the early years of Colorado territory and today.”  He was paid $690 by the U.S. Treasury Department of Painting and Sculpture in 1937 for completion of this work.

If you know where one or more of these panels are, please contact us and we will put you in touch with the proper authorities.  If they still exist, it would be nice if they could be displayed for the public’s enjoyment, as they were meant to be.